Social Mobilisation (COs, VOs, LSOs)
RSPs, through their decades of work, have learnt and demonstrated that community owned organisations are financially and socially viable initiatives that can play a pivotal role in the process of social transformation. As part of the SUCCESS Programme, Community Organisations (COs), Village Organisations (VOs) and Local Support Organisations (LSOs) will be formed to create local level governance bodies owned and operated by the people. These organisations are expected to play an important role in identifying problems and offering solutions, with the help of the government and other development stakeholders.
The centre-piece of the RSPs’ approach is mobilisation of the poor in order to enable them to participate directly in decisions that affect their lives and prospects. The concept is to build capacities of people to organise, manage their own organisations, and increase the outreach of government and other development actors for effective supply and genuine demand. RSPs provide social guidance as well as technical and financial assistance to the rural poor based on a standard three-tiered social mobilisation approach to Community Driven Development (CDD). The social mobilisation approach, centres on the belief that people including poor and women have an innate potential to help themselves, that they can better manage their limited resources if they organise themselves into their own institutions.
Once people are organised into properly functioning institutions of their own, they find the platform to harness their potentials, address their problems and fulfil their needs. When such institutions of the people are fostered at the neighbourhood, village and union council levels, they become a vehicle through which all kinds of community development initiatives can be effectively implemented. These institutions serve as the primary partners in fulfilling the nation’s development agenda by extending outreach to the household level across the country, for it is at the household level that poverty is experienced on a daily basis.
The SUCCESS Programme is building upon this three-tiered social mobilisation approach of RSPs, which includes:
- Fostering of Community Organisations (COs) at neighbourhood or muhalla level.
- Federating COs into Village Organisations (VOs) at village level.
- Federating VOs into Local Support Organisations (LSOs) at Union Council (UC) level.
Community Organisations (COs) are the foundation of the three-tiered institutional network. The CO is a neighbourhood level institution comprising of 10-25 member households. COs are federated into Village Organisations (VOs) for planning and coordination at the village level. At the third tier, representatives from all VOs in a Union Council form a Local Support Organisation (LSO). Under the SUCCESS Programme, LSOs at district level will form District LSO Networks to interact with government at higher levels and to encourage member LSOs to interact and exchange information amongst themselves and with other civil society organisations.
Community Investment Fund (CIF)
The main purpose of Community Investment Fund (CIF) is to provide a capital grant by the Rural Support Programmes (RSPs) to Community Institutions (CIs) i.e. COs, VOs, and LSOs. The CIF is targeted at the women from poor and poorest households, and is used by the CIs as revolving fund. Poverty Score Card (PSC) is used to identify the eligible households to ensure that only the poor and poorest households (with Poverty Score 0-23) will access CIF capital and start income generating activities.
Income Generating Grants (IGG)
Main purpose of Income Generating Grants (IGGs) is to provide assistance to the poor community members through one-time cash grant and guidance so that they are able to start economic/income generating activity to increase their incomes. Poverty scorecard is used to identify the eligible households to ensure that only the poor and poorest households (with Poverty Score 0-23) access IGG.
Micro Health Insurance (MHI)
Micro Health Insurance (MHI) is a social protection measure for the most destitute and vulnerable households. The objective of the MHI is to protect these families from health shocks that may push them deeper into poverty and hamper their capacity to generate income, hence adversely affecting their socio-economic well-being.
Technical and Vocational Skills Training (TVST)
One of the key activities under the SUCCESS Programme is to provide Technical and Vocational Skills Training (TVST) to poor community members, especially women. Purpose of TVST is to design and implement demand driven training programmes that provide open access to the labour market and enhance income generating opportunities, with regards to (self) employment.
Community Physical Infrastructure (CPI)
The purpose of Community Physical Infrastructure (CPI) projects are to improve the basic infrastructures and productive assets used by, and services delivered to, the targeted communities. The community members will benefit from improved community infrastructures to meet their basic needs and gain better access to public services. These infrastructures will be managed, built and maintained over time by the communities, who will also form Operations and Management (O&M) committees and community savings systems.
Research and Advocacy
A number of research studies will be conducted as part of the SUCCESS Programme.These studies will provide an in-depth understanding about the causes of chronic poverty, escape from chronic poverty and an analysis and policy and practical guidelines on programme interventions for reducing chronic poverty. Particular attention will be given to track the transformational changes in the lives of the poor over the programme life and trace its linkages with the programme interventions and other socio- economic changes that occur in the programme area. This research component will also look into issues of social cohesion, gender empowerment, community leadership and effectiveness of different programme interventions.
Through this research component in SUCCESS, a number of studies will look into the causes of chronic poverty by examining household poverty dynamics and thus endeavour to reduce this research gap. Also, as the project proceeds, the changes in the lives of project beneficiaries will be documented to find what works and what does not work and why. In this way, these studies will not only inform mid-course project correction but will also inform other development organisation, the federal government, academia, civil society and the government of Sindh to design and implement effective poverty reduction strategies. society and the government of Sindh to design and implement effective poverty reduction strategies.
Three Main Research Questions
This research component seeks to answer three primary questions of household poverty dynamics through the window of two union councils in Sindh.
- One, what are the causes of chronic poverty? Some of the secondary research questions will be; what are the socio-economic and political causes of poverty?What are the gendered causes of poverty?What are the missing institutional linkages, for example provision and access to quality health and education and basic infrastructure, responsible for chronic poverty?
- Second, what are the pathways and practical guidelines to inform programme interventions, development organisations, and civil society, and academia, federal and provincial and local governments for reducing chronic poverty?
- Three, how far people’s institutions (Cos, VOs, LSOs) fostered by RSPs are effective in reducing poverty?